Status of LED-Lighting world market in 2017

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/status-led-lighting-world-market-2017

Lighting is responsible for about 15% of global electricity consumption. LEDs are a new technologies introduced in the market over the last 10 years. LED offers a very high efficiency compared to traditional lamps and higher lighting quality compared to fluorescent lighting in the non-residential sector. Through technology development and energy efficiency policies the LED lighting is fast penetrating the lighting market, offering energy and cost savings and higher lighting quality. This report offers a snapshot of the latest developments in term of market and technologies for solid state lighting and in particular for LED in the different markets. It follows a previous study by the JRC carried out in 2011.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
ZISSIS, Georges
BERTOLDI, Paolo
Products
Industry
Technology and Standards
Year: 
2018
Publisher: 
Joint Research Centre
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
JRC113302
Publication Number: 
JRC113302

Guidebook How to develop a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP) in the MENA Region

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/guidebook-how-develop-sustainable-energy-and-climate-action-plan-secap-mena-region

This guidebook provides guidance to local authorities in the elaboration and implementation of their Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan (SECAP). This document supports local authorities in defining the key elements of the initiative, in building a Baseline Emission Inventory (BEI), performing a Risk and Vulnerabilities Assessment (RVA), and the guides them in the elaboration of the actions included in the plan.

This document is adapted to the South Mediterranean context from the Joint Research Centre’s (JRC) guidebook How to develop a Sustainable Energy and Climate Action Plan, developed in 2018 to support the implementation of the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) initiative in European cities. Moreover, this guidebook is also the update of the guidebook "How to develop a Sustainable Energy Action Plan for Southern Mediterranean Countries" developed by the JRC in 2014. The European Union, through ENPI and other financial instruments, provides support to MENA countries in the design and the implementation of sustainable energy and climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. The Cleaner Energy-saving Mediterranean Cities (CES-MED) and EU for Climate Action in the ENI Southern Neighbourhood projects are European Commission projects that supports local authorities in the ENPI South Mediterranean Partner Countries to deepen their engagement in sustainable development policies and actions.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Kona Albana
Bertoldi Paolo
Palermo Valentina
El-Guindy Rana
Buildings
Urban Areas
Transport and Mobility
Energy Generation and Distribution
Policies and Targets
Year: 
2018
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
JRC113188
Publication Number: 
JRC113188

2018 Best Practice Guidelines for the EU Code of Conduct on Data Centre Energy Efficiency

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/2018-best-practice-guidelines-eu-code-conduct-data-centre-energy-efficiency
Groups audience: 
Data Centres Code of Conduct

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector including data centres generates up to 2% of the global CO2 emissions and data centres are estimated to have the fastest growing carbon footprint from across the whole ICT sector, mainly due to new business such as the cloud computing and the rapid growth of the use of Internet services. The European Code of Conduct for Data Centre Energy Efficiency programme is a voluntary initiative created in 2008 in response to the increasing energy consumption in data centres and the need to reduce the related environmental, economic and energy supply security impacts. Companies participating on the Code of Conduct have to adopt best practices for energy management in data centres. The present report supplements to the Code of Conduct and present the updated (year 2018) version of the Best Practices. This report is provided as an education and reference document as part of the Code of Conduct to assist data centre operators in identifying and implementing measures to improve the energy efficiency of their data centres. A broad group of expert reviewers from operators, vendors, consultants, academics, professional and national bodies have contributed to and reviewed the Best Practices. This report provides a full list of the identified and recognised data centre energy efficiency best practices within the Code of Conduct. Customers or suppliers of IT services may also find it useful to request or provide a list of Code of Conduct Practices implemented in a data centre to assist in procurement of services that meet their environmental or sustainability standards.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
ACTON Mark
BERTOLDI Paolo
BOOTH John
NEWCOMBE Liam
ROUYER Andre
TOZER Robert
Products
Policies and Targets
Year: 
2018
Publisher: 
Publications Office of the European Union
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
ISBN: 978-92-79-79371-4
ISSN: 1831-9424
doi: 10.2760/703236
Publication Number: 
EUR 29103 EN

EU Code of Conduct on Energy Consumption of Broadband Equipment: Version 6

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/eu-code-conduct-energy-consumption-broadband-equipment-version-6
Groups audience: 
Broadband Communication Equipment Codes of Conduct

Expectations are that broadband equipment will contribute considerably to the electricity consumption of households in European Community in the near future. Depending on the penetration level, the specifications of the equipment and the requirements of the service provider, a total European consumption of at least 50 TWh per year was estimated for the year 2015 for broadband equipment. With the general principles and actions resulting from the implementation of the Code of Conduct the electricity consumption can be slightly reduced or kept constant compared to a business as usual scenario with growing usage and penetration of broadband equipment in the EU. The Code of Conduct sets out the power consumption levels for energy efficient broadband equipment.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Paolo Bertoldi
Products
Policies and Targets
Year: 
2017
Publisher: 
Publications Office of the European Union
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
EUR 28519 EN
ISBN: 978-92-79-66673-5
ISSN: 1831-9424
DOI: 10.2760/602762
Publication Number: 
JRC106039

2017 Best Practice Guidelines for the EU Code of Conduct on Data Centre Energy Efficiency

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/2017-best-practice-guidelines-eu-code-conduct-data-centre-energy-efficiency

The European Code of Conduct for Data Centres is a voluntary market transformation programme addressing data centre owners and operators. The Data Centres Code of Conduct has been created in response to increasing energy consumption in data centres and the need to reduce the related environmental, economic and energy supply impacts. The aim is to inform and stimulate operators and owners to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner without hampering the critical function of data centres. The Data Centres Code of Conduct is in operation since 2008 and so far more than 300 data centres of different size and IT services have joined the Code of Conduct. The core of the programme is the commitment by the participant to carry out an initial energy audit to identify the major energy saving opportunities; to prepare an action plan; to implement the action plan; and to monitor energy consumption. At the heart of the Code of Conduct are the Best Practices Guidelines, which indicate the areas for energy efficiency upgrades in data centres, covering dayto-day operations, equipment substitution, major refurbishment and new data centre design. The Best Practices Guidelines reflect the principle of area of responsibility for each type operators.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Mark Acton
Paolo Bertoldi
John Booth
Liam Newcombe
Andre Rouyer
Products
Policies and Targets
Year: 
2017
Publisher: 
Publications Office of the European Union
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
EUR 28426 EN
ISBN 978-92-79-65264-6
ISSN 1831-9424
doi: 10.2760/044571
Publication Number: 
JRC104370

Buildings related datasets accessible through the INSPIRE geoportal European Union Location Framework (EULF) Project Energy Pilot

Internal Reference: 
Pilot project on energy and location
QR Code: 
https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/buildings-related-datasets-accessible-through-inspire-geoportal-european-union-0
Groups audience: 
Energy and Location

The European Union is giving more and more emphasis to its energy policy, whose strategy and actions are included in the Energy Union Package and the 2030 Framework for Climate and Energy. Buildings in which people live and work are responsible for an important portion of the energy consumption in Europe and there are a series of policies and initiatives that are aiming at improving their energy performances and to collect data of sufficient quality on the effect of energy efficiency policies on building stock across Europe. A related initiative is the EC INSPIRE Directive establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community, addressing a number of data themes, including buildings. This report aims to assess the extent to which the buildings-related datasets which European Member States are sharing following INSPIRE provisions are of good quality and can serve the purposes of the initiatives related to energy efficiency of buildings. A step by step methodology has been applied and documented to guide the reader through the discovery of building-related datasets in the INSPIRE geoportal, focusing primarily on datasets usability in a GIS environment. A first finding is the high number of building related datasets discovered through the INSPIRE Geoportal, which confirms its importance as a source of data for energy efficiency initiatives. Given the several hundreds of datasets discovered, a sampling mechanism to select a small number of datasets to be further inspected has been adopted. Following a more detailed analysis, in particular on datasets that can be downloaded from the Geoportal, we can conclude that some of them are of good quality, in terms of data accuracy and national geographic coverage, while for others these criteria are not fulfilled. This can be related to the fact that the INSPIRE roadmap foresees the full implementation of the Directive in Member States by 2020, so there is the need to wait that date to exploit the full potential which we are starting to see in countries that are already advanced in the implementation for historic and cultural reasons. Moreover, this work has been useful also to identify some recommendations to INSPIRE implementers working in energy thematic communities, in order to better address their efforts in fulfilling on-going and future INSPIRE obligations.

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Giacomo MARTIRANO
Maria Teresa BORZACCHIELLO
Raymond BOGUSLAWSKI
Francesco PIGNATELLI
Paolo ZANGHERI
Daniele PACI
Isabella MASCHIO
Buildings
Urban Areas
Year: 
2016
Publisher: 
Publication Office of the European Union
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
ISBN 978-92-79-59869-2
ISSN 1831-9424
EUR 28014
Publication Number: 
LF-NA-28014-EN-N

Location data for buildings related energy efficiency policies

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/publications/location-data-buildings-related-energy-efficiency-policies
Groups audience: 
Energy and Location

Based on the priority currently given by the European Union to the energy efficiency topic through its Energy Union Package, this feasibility study has focused on the role of location data in support of energy efficiency policies, taking into account the requirements of INSPIRE, EPBD and EED Directives, as well as the CoM initiative. The EU Member States are already due to implement such Directives according to different roadmaps, but there are benefits to be gained from a coherent and consistent approach. Moreover, data is not always available in consistent form and with good quality. The monitoring and reporting requirements set by the CoM need real data and models, that can be used and that should work consistently across different administrative levels. The analysis reported in this document support these statement, showing that there is lack of data quality and reliability. These aspects might hinder the effective application of the energy efficiency policies at the municipal, district and national level. Geospatial technologies in general and accurate location data in particular can support this field, because they can significantly support efficient processes related to data collection, elaboration and communication to be executed in all the phases of energy efficiency policies life cycle; and effective decision-making. INSPIRE has a role to play as it can provide common data models and common data access rules adopted by all EU MS and a roadmap to provide interoperable datasets of high relevance with energy efficiency. The study has identified areas of development and analysis that can be useful to fill the recognised “data gap”, and proposed an initial pilot activity as a start-up project to investigate concretely these ideas with a limited number of pilot cities. 

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Bloem, Hans
Boguslawski, Ray
Borzacchiello, Maria Teresa
Cipriano, Piergiorgio
Kona, Albana
Martirano, Giacomo
Maschio, Isabella
Pigantelli, Francesco
Buildings
Urban Areas
Policies and Targets
Technology and Standards
Year: 
2016
Citation: 
Location data for buildings related energy efficiency policies
Publisher: 
Joint research Centre
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
EUR 27411 EN
Publication Number: 
EUR 27411 EN
Publication Source: 
JRC Publication Repository

Background analysis of the quality of the energy data to be considered for the European Reference Life Cycle Database (ELCD)

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https://e3p.jrc.ec.europa.eu/node/170

Context

The European Reference Life-Cycle Database (ELCD) has been developed by the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (DG JRC) and provides core Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data from front-running EU-level business associations and, where not available, other sources. Within the ELCD, several energy-related data are provided, being energy a major input for almost all the environmental analyses of products or processes. The present document summarizes an analysis of the quality of energy data for European markets that are available in 3rd party life cycle databases and from authoritative sources that are, or could be, used in the context of the ELCD. This work has been carried out by the Energy Systems Analysis (ASE) Unit of CIEMAT (Public Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology, Madrid, Spain), through a service contract (Service Contract Number 387533) awarded by the European Commission – Joint Research Centre – Institute for Environment and Sustainability (Tender Number IES/H/2011/01/13/NC).

Methods

The work consisted of an analysis and a comparison of energy datasets from several relevant databases (i.e. Ecoinvent[1], E3[2], and GEMIS[3]), considering the ELCD database as the basis for this analysis in order to figure out the possibilities for improvement of the ELCD overall data quality.

The current ELCD energy datasets have been to a large extent originated from the GaBi[4] database. Therefore, in order to analyse background information of the ELCD datasets, GaBi datasets from the last updated version (at the time when the study was initiated, i.e. 2009) have been analysed.

The main criteria for the other database selection were based on the availability of EU-related data, the inclusion of wide datasets on energy products and services (specially focusing on those matching the chosen energy patterns), and the broad approval by the scientific community.

24 energy datasets were chosen for the analysis with the aim of selecting a sufficiently representative sample of energy sources in the European context.

The evaluation has been based on the quality indicators developed within the ILCD handbook (EC-JRC-IES 2010a, 2010b, 2011): Technological representativeness, Geographical representativeness, Time-related representativeness, Completeness, Precision / Uncertainty, and Methodological appropriateness and consistency. These quality indicators have been refined in order to appropriately identify key aspects that are involved in both quality and methodological aspects of energy related LCI datasets. This refinement facilitates their use in the analysis of energy systems.

The quality of each dataset has been estimated for each indicator and then, compared among the different databases. Even though the final results are discussed based on “qualitative” results for each indicator, the individual indicator component and the total DQR have been calculated as a tool for further dataset improvements.

Results

Results have shown that, in general terms the ELCD dataset analysed showed a very good performance in many of the identified quality criteria and especially in those criteria related to technology representativeness, methodology and Completeness.

Several aspects where improvements are considered necessary are highlighted through the analysis. For example, sources of data and information coming from authoritative sources, business associations or other sources are identified and proposed to be used.

One of the most relevant improvement opportunity of the ELCD is the lack of datasets that model electricity produced by each technology in each European country. Currently, the ELCD includes electricity mix datasets for each country, modelled considering an established share of sources that might be different to the needs of the user.

Although the optimal solution to this limitation would be to model new datasets for electricity production by technology and for each country, this might not be feasible for the short term. An alternative solution would be to model datasets for each technology under a European context, and to introduce parameters in the electricity mix datasets to vary the shares of each technology.

In order to give response to any change or advance in technologies, and to be able to model new datasets and/or to modify the current ones if necessary, it is highly recommended to constantly review the evolution of advanced technologies and their share in the European market..

Business associations and other authoritative sources are considered relevant sources to update the status of these technologies. Along this study relevant sources have been identified.

 

Recommendations

The future versions of the ELCD should include new datasets for electricity production by technology and by country. Also, future electricity scenarios can be developed using to that end the output from reference energy models, developed by the European Commission at different levels, such as PRIMES[5] or TIMES[6]. This is an important improvement of the database that could be very useful for prospective and consequential LCA studies.

Modelling the end of life of the energy systems appears to be a difficult task due to the novelty of some technologies and the lack of data from other technologies (solar PV, final repository for spent nuclear fuel and natural gas plant dismantling). Efforts on this challenge should be kept in the future.

Finally, deep analysis of the learning curves is recommended to identify the level of maturity for each technology. Then, special periods for reviewing could be identified by technology.

 

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References
Main Language: 
English
Geographical area: 
Author: 
Simone Fazio (Editor)
Marco Recchioni (Editor)
Fabrice Mathieux (Editor)
Daniel Garrain (Author)
Cristina de la Rùa (Author)
Yolanda Lechòn (Author)
Energy Generation and Distribution
Policies and Targets
Technology and Standards
Year: 
2013
Publisher: 
European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability
PUBSY Category: 
Identifier and type: 
EUR 26431
Publication Number: 
JRC 87127
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